POINT1 What is a kidney?

The kidneys are located above the waist and one on the left and right inside the dorsal muscles.
They have a shape of broad beans, which are as big as a fist in the case of adults, and the weight of one piece is 120 to 150 g. The kidney has the function of excreting waste products and electrolytes such as excessive salt generated in the body to maintain the amount of body fluid, such as blood, and their components. Furthermore, it secretes the hormone that adjusts blood pressure, as well as the hormone for creating blood, and helps the operation of vitamin D, which is necessary to strengthen bones.

POINT2 Population ratio of chronic kidney disease patients in Japan

Although there are various causes of chronic kidney disease, salt is one of the causes. Since many Japanese foods contain high salt content, it is said that the number of chronic kidney disease patients in Japan is very high compared to other countries. The rate reaches one person in every eight adults 20 years of age and older.

Source: CKD Medical Treatment Guide 2012 edited by Japanese Society of Nephrology

POINT3 What is chronic kidney disease?

A state in which kidney function is gradually lost during several months or years, then function falls to less than 60% of normal, and this situation continues for three months or more is called chronic kidney disease. Even if kidney function begins to be lost, there may not be subjective symptoms and one may not notice they have chronic kidney disease. In many cases, kidney function loss caused by chronic kidney disease cannot be restored, even if deterioration can be delayed. It is necessary to pay attention to daily habits such as diet, etc. in order to maintain kidney functions, even if only slightly, and thus, it is important to diagnose the disease as early as possible. The state in which chronic kidney disease worsens and kidney function is reduced to 30% or less is generally called chronic renal failure, and then the four main symptoms of [1] Proteinuria, [2] Hematuria, [3] Edema, and [4] High blood pressure appear. In this case, patients should deal with these symptoms with dietary treatment, such as limiting salt, protein, potassium, phosphorus, water, etc., and taking medicine appropriate to the symptoms. Furthermore, if function falls to less than 10%, it becomes difficult to maintain the life with one's own kidneys only. Therefore, dialysis therapy or kidney transplantation becomes necessary, in order to make up for the function of the kidney.

POINT4 Variety of dialysis therapies

Dialysis therapy includes hemodialysis to purify the blood using an artificial kidney (dialyzer) and peritoneal dialysis to purify the blood through one's own peritonea.


This is a therapy treated in hospitals or hemodialysis clinics about three times a week. In recent years, various treatment options have begun to be offered and the possibility of medical treatment at home is also being brought by receiving proper training.

Peritoneal dialysis:

This is a dialysis therapy that can be performed at home. Therefore, it is easy to have the treatment according to your life style and possible to perform treatment while having your daily life.

POINT5 What is hemodialysis?

Once the blood is withdrawn from of the body, the waste products accumulated in the blood and extra fluid are removed through the dialyzer membrane, and the purified blood is returned into the body. It takes about 4 to 5 hours per treatment.

POINT6 What is peritoneal dialysis?

This is a treatment method to purify the blood by using the patient's own peritoneum as a dialysis membrane. Usually, 1.5 to 2 L of dialysate is put into the abdominal cavity through the catheter (tube) inserted by surgery, and it is exchanged about 3 to 5 times a day. The amount and number of fluids are determined by the physique, physical condition, examination data etc. of the patient. One dialysis solution exchange can be done in about 30 minutes and they can spend their daily life as usual other than that. Dialysis is always carried out while spending everyday life.

POINT7 Kidney transplantation

Dialysis therapy is not the only treatment alternative to the kidney. Besides hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, there is also a kidney transplantation considerably. Although kidney transplantation is not as popular in Japan as it is in Europe and the United States, it is the only treatment that can regain the same function as the original kidney. Specifically, there are two types of living transplants, one is living body kidney transplanted from living people and the other one is kidney transplant from the deceased donor.

POINT8 About our dialysis business

Presently, Nikkiso is selling its dialysis machines and consumables in Japan and overseas. Our market share of dialysis machines is more than 50% in Japan. We are handling wide range of products for dialysis, such as hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, home dialysis, and are serving various needs by matching the lifestyles of patients. Our products are used all over the world.