In 1986, we started developing hollow filer membranes and established technology to control structure of dialysis membrane by blending two different high polymers. And we developed PEPA membrane by the original technology in 1990 which has superior performance to meet market demand.
Polyester-polymer alloy (PEPA®) membrane is Nikkiso's original dialysis membrane which is polymer consisting of Polyarylate (PAR) and Polyethersulfone (PES). The appropriate pore size can be controlled easily by a mixture ratio of these two polymers.
We have two types of PEPA membrane, original PEPA membrane, and hydrophilic PEPA membrane with Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) which is used well for PS type membrane. The hydrophilic PEPA membrane contains PVP the same as PS membrane. However, PVP is not used for pore formation of PEPA membrane, so it is said that PVP amount for PEPA is less than other membranes with PVP such PS and PES membrane.
FDX series are dialyzers which hydrophilic PEPA membrane is used.
This dialyzer is for patients who is in initiate dialysis, have reduction in nutritional status, or have a small body. This series reduces amount of albumin loss and efficiently remove β2-microglobulin which is caused dialysis amyloidosis.
This dialyzer is useful for various patients including elderly patients.
FDY series are also dialyzers which hydrophilic PEPA membrane is used.
This dialyzer has a bigger pore size than FDX series and high performance on removing medium and large molecule weight substances. FDY series are designed to increase removal performance for protein-bound uremic toxins by actively removing range of middle and large molecule weight which are hard to separate in dialysis treatment.
This dialyzer has been used to prevent dialysis complications for patients who just started dialysis treatment.
PEPA as for ETRF
PEPA membrane has a characteristic structure of three layers which are asymmetric structure membrane and has a three-layer structure, i.e. a skin layer in the inner surface side, a support layer in the middle of range of thickness, and a skin layer in the outer surface side. PEPA membrane has superior endotoxin (ET) retentive capability. And it is reported that influence of Endotoxin in dialysis fluid could be reduced due to the capturing performance of Endotoxin in a skin layer in the outer surface.
EF-01 / EF-01D
EF-01/EF-01D are filters for removing particles contained in RO water and dialysis fluid. Hydrophobic PEPA membrane is used. Both directions of filtration, inside from outside and outside from inside are available. The connection ports of EF-01/EF-01D comply "Connection for dialysis fluid" defined in JIS T3250:2005.
EF-02 / EF-02D
EF-02/EF-02D are particulate filtration filters for dialysis fluid and dedicated for Nikkiso's dialysis machines. EF-02/EF-02D can be exchanged easily by using specific holder equipped on our dialysis machine. Hydrophobic PEPA membrane is alse used for this filter.